Immune challenged cows require more glucose
Efficient glucose uptake by immune cells is critical for maintaining cellular functions and eliciting an optimal host response to invading microorganisms. Glucose is required by phagocytic cells for proliferation, survival and differentiation, and glucose has been shown to be the preferred metabolic fuel during inflammation for activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes rather than fatty acids, amino acids or ketones.
Calcium and immune support
In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), stores of calcium decrease prior to parturition and the development of hypocalcemia. This suggests that systemic calcium stress precedes measurable hypocalcemia, particularly in cows that will develop milk fever. Therefore, PBMC intracellular calcium stores are a sensitive measure of calcium stresses in transition cows.